We find—as the ripest fruit on that tree—the sovereign individual, Nietzsche second essay which resembles only itself, which has broken loose again from the morality of custom—the autonomous individual beyond morality for "autonomous" and "moral" are mutually exclusive terms —in short, the human being who possesses his own independent and enduring will, who is entitled to make promises—and in him a proud consciousness, quivering in every muscle, of what has finally been achieved and given living embodiment in him: Mutuality and commensurateness replace the former individuality of all persons and actions.
These observations are purely conjectural; for, apart from the painful nature of the task, it is hard to plumb such profound depths: Here is the hinge of his entire thesis, not only for The Genealogy of Morals, but for much of his entire philosophy.
Just like the things water animals must have gone though when they were forced either to become land animals or to die off, so events must have played themselves out with this half-beast so happily adapted to the wilderness, war, wandering around, adventure—suddenly all its instincts were devalued and "disengaged.
And anyone who can still hear but nowadays people no longer have the ears for this how in this night of torment and insanity the cry of love has resounded, the cry of the most yearning delight, of redemption through love, turns away, seized by an invincible horror.
Imagine that this universe is all there is, and that it repeats itself endlessly: The feeling of owing a debt to the deity has grown continuously for several centuries, always in the same proportion in which the idea of God and the consciousness of God have grown and become exalted among mankind.
Ascetics scorn reason, and demand that we see the absurd, the impossible, and the counter-intuitive and take it on faith; its very ineffability is often the reason we should believe in it. This passage from Tertullian is very striking in light of Nietzsche's earlier claims.
Do you understand that? He argues that the resentful measure themselves always against others, especially against the nobles. In order to give at least an idea of how uncertain, how belated, how accidental "the meaning" of punishment is and how one and the same procedure can be used, interpreted, or adjusted for fundamentally different purposes, let me offer here an example which presented itself to me on the basis of relatively small and random material: Nobles instead, he claims, are so full of life and purpose that they don't have time to measure themselves against others.
Now, so far as that other element in punishment is concerned, the fluid element, its "meaning," in a very late cultural state for example in contemporary Europe the idea of "punishment" actually presents not simply one meaning but a whole synthesis of "meanings.
Edited by Daniel Breazeale, and translated by R.
It is much too early for the kind of free spirit—a Zarathustra -figure—who could bring this about, although he will come one day: Must not that philosophic invention, so audacious and so fatal, which was then absolutely new to Europe, the invention of "free will," of the absolute spontaneity of man in good and evil, simply have been made for the specific purpose of justifying the idea, that the interest of the gods in humanity and human virtue was inexhaustible?
Think of the old German punishments, for example, stoning even the legend lets the mill stone fall on the head of the guilty personbreaking on the wheel the unique invention and specialty of the German genius in the area of punishment!
In this way, the gods then served to justify men to a certain extent, even in bad things.Second Essay, Sections Summary Nietzsche opens the second essay by examining the significance of our ability to make promises.
To hold to a promise requires both a powerful memory--the will that a certain event should not be forgotten--and a confidence about the future and one's ability to hold to the promise in the future.
In this post, I briefly note some of the more interesting points that struck my notice in the second and third essays of The Genealogy of Morals. At ii, Nietzsche articulates a view.
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After devoting the first fifteen sections of the second essay to brief descriptions of the origins of promises, memory, justice, the state, obligation, punishment, and conscience, Nietzsche turns to the ill effects of conscience on mankind.
FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE On the Genealogy of Morality. CAMBRIDGE TEXTS IN THE HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT Series editors The essay ‘The Greek State’ was originally intended by Nietzsche to In sections 20–2 of the Second Essay, it.
FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE On the Genealogy of Morality. CAMBRIDGE TEXTS IN THE HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT Series editors The essay ‘The Greek State’ was originally intended by Nietzsche to In sections 20–2 of the Second Essay, it is only possi.Download